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Commercial Real Estate Finance Information and Educational Resources

Breakeven Occupancy Ratio

In the commercial real estate market (CRE), the breakeven occupancy ratio is the occupancy rate where a property is right at the cusp of being in an operating deficit (“loss”) or operating profit (“surplus”).

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Debt Yield (DY)

The Debt Yield measures the riskiness of a real estate loan by estimating the return earned by the lender to recoup the original investment in the event of property foreclosure.

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Loan to Cost (LTC)

Loan to Cost (LTC) is the ratio between the total size of a loan and the total construction, renovation, or development cost of a real estate project, expressed as a percentage.

In practice, the LTC ratio is most frequently relied upon by underwriters in the commercial real estate market (CRE) to size the appropriate proportion of debt to offer to a borrower relative to the total capital required to fund a project.

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Loan to Value Ratio (LTV)

The Loan to Value Ratio (LTV) is a credit risk metric that compares the size of a mortgage loan to the appraised value of a property as of the present date. The formula to calculate the loan-to-value ratio (LTV) is the loan amount divided by the current appraised property value, expressed as a percentage.

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Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR)

Commercial lenders most commonly use the DSCR to determine if a particular commercial property will be able to generate sufficient net operating income (NOI) to service the proposed loan or debt.

The debt service coverage ratio (DSCR) is calculated by dividing the net operating income (NOI) of a property by its annual debt service, which includes interest payments and principal amortization.

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